Visit http://johncaputo.com/aop/head-trauma… injuries can occur in many different ways. Obviously, trauma can cause a brain injury. Some of these are the result of carelessness causing direct traumatic contact to the brain by an outside object or force. Others are caused by the brain literally striking the inside of the skull in what is caused a closed head injury. Closed head injuries can result in fluid collection called hydrocephalus, bleeding of the tissues which is a hemorrhage, and sometimes a herniation of the brain from the fluid or blood which is a destructive movement of the brain from the force of the fluid or blood collection.
Yet, the brain is sometimes injured very seriously without a fluid or blood collection. A serious concussion or bruise of the brain can injure the connecting fibers of the brain and damage the electrical system. This can cause what is known as cognitive changes such as loss or deterioration of memory, difficulties in reasoning and thinking, speech and learning abilities.
There are occasions where a problem with breathing caused by an arrest, by shock, stroke or from a deficiency in the lung whereby blood is not oxygenated sufficiently can cause temporary anoxia, (the lack of oxygen), or persistent hypoxia, (a lowered amount of oxygen to the brain) which damages the tissue resulting in severe motor and mental function deficits. Fore more information on brain injures caused by delayed diagnosis, click here.
At our law firm, we have had the experience in pursuing many cases for injured citizens which have occurred in all of the above ways.
Biomechanics and neuropathology of adult and paediatric head injury
A. K. Ommaya
The objective of this study was to understand the biomechanics in age-related primary traumatic brain injuries (TBI) causing initial severity and secondary progressive damage and to develop strategy reducing TBI outcome variability using biomechanical reconstruction to identify types of causal mechanisms prior to clinical trials of neuro-protective treatment. The methods included the explanation of TBI biomechanics and physiopathological mechanisms from dual perspectives of neurosurgery and biomechanical engineering. Scaling of tolerances for skull failure and brain injuries in infants, children and adults are developed. Diagnostic assumptions without biomechanical considerations are critiqued. Methods for retrospective TBI reconstruction for prevention are summarized. Mechanisms of TBI are based on the differences between the mechanical properties of the head and neck related to age. Skull fracture levels correlate with increasing cranial bone thickness and in the development of the cranial sutures in infants and in adults. Head injury tolerance levels at three age categories for cerebral concussion, skull fracture and three grades of diffuse axonal injuries (DAI) are presented. Brain mass correlates inversely for TBI caused by angular head motions and locations of injurious stresses are predictable by centripetal theory. Improved quantitative diagnosis of TBI type and severity levels depend primarily on age and biomechanical mechanisms. Reconstruction of the biomechanics is feasible and enables quantitative stratification of TBI severity. Experimental treatment has succeeded in preventing progressive damage in animal TBI models. In humans this has failed, because the animal model received biomechanically controlled TBI and humans did not. Clinical similarities of human TBI patients do not necessarily predict equivalent biomechanics because such trauma can be produced in various ways. We recommend ‘reverse engineering’ for in-depth reconstruction of the TBI injury mechanism for qualitative diagnoses and reduction of outcome variability.